277,395. Redmond, J. D. March 16, 1926. Energy - absorbing elements; actuated or applied by speed-regulators. -A portable fire-escape comprises a cable-drum 1 mounted to rotate on bearings 4 in a casing 4<1> to which a body-strap is attached, and fluidfriction braking means for limiting the speed automatically, the rotation of the drum forcing oil through adjustable passages in a container. As shown in Fig 1, the drum 1 and the fixed spindle 3 are hollow and filled with oil. Cams 5 in the drum drive a diaphragm 6 backwards and forwards along the spindle, forcing the oil through orifices 7, 8<1>, 8 from one side cf the diaphragm to the other. The orifices 8' are guarded by spring flaps 9 which are deflected on increase of speed so as to reduce the passages. In a modification, Fig. 7, passages 40 are controlled by spring plates 43, and passages 44 damp the action of the springs. As shown in Fig. 3, in which the drum and diaphragm are omitted from the drawing, the passage 12 through the central disc 11 in the spindle is varied by adjusting the disc by turning the wheel 13.